How was created WHSD in St. Petersburg
Construction of a toll highway inside the city of St. Petersburg began in December 2005. The need for the construction of this complex transport structure arose because of the geographical features of the island’s location of the territory and the difficulties of transport links.
The WHSD is a highway with a unique architecture, first used in practice. The design of the facility was taken over by the Stroyproject Institute, and the project implementation work lasted 14 years – from 2002 to 2016. Of the total length of the highway (46.6 km), more than half of the sections are occupied by artificial structures (cable-stayed and two-tier bridges, flyovers, tunnels and overpasses).
Features of the WHSD project
The project is conditionally divided into 3 separate areas: North, Central, South. The route covers the western part of the city along the coast of the Gulf of Finland, transport exits to the Russian regions and the Baltic countries, the seaport, the ring road, Beloostrov, Primorsky Avenue, the Predportovaya station and the central traffic bypass. The movement of vehicles is carried out in four-lane, six-lane and eight-lane sections. These features of the project allow us to expect a significant increase in the calculated traffic intensity. By 2025, 131,000 cars per day will pass through the central section, 144,000 along the southern section, 40,000 to the Scandinavian highway and 80,000 to the ring road.
Approval and criticism of the project
All the important transport hubs of St. Petersburg today are connected by the Western high-speed diameter, which effectively affected the comfort of motorists and the general situation on the roads.
But this project had opponents. At the discussion stage, reasonable concerns were voiced about damage in the process of building important cultural objects. Historical monuments such as the estate of the Countess Dashkova, the old church and the building of the Gutuevskaya manufactory, and the ancient Ekaterinhof Park were at risk of exposure. The construction of the northern section was reflected in the remains of an old building – the station station Ryajoki, the work of the famous architect Granholm. Now the traces of this building are completely lost.
The building of Gutuevskaya manufactory.
Another aspect of doubt related to residential buildings of Kanonersky Island, over which it was planned to build a hinged part of the central segment. Settlement affected only four houses, and to ensure a comfortable life for the remaining residents, it was planned to install noise screens.
The construction of this unique object began in 2005, and after 3 years the opening of the first section took place. Full vehicle traffic in the southern section was opened in 2012, in the northern – in 2013, and the central section began to work with a full load in 2016. Since then, the highway is fully operational.
In 2008, the third and fourth districts of the seaport and Stachek Avenue were connected to the trunk traffic. In 2010, the movement of vehicles along the section leading to the interchange with Blagodatnaya Street became available. The southern section took an active movement of cars to the embankment of the Yekaterinburg river in 2012, and in August 2013 motorists were able to move towards the Scandinavian highway from Primorsky Avenue along the new northern section.
Construction of the southern section
The southern section of the WHSD was erected by the Bridge Building Unit No. 19, the General Construction Corporation and the company Pilon from the beginning of construction until October 2012. During this time, the site has been equipped with a length of more than 8 km and trips to the third and fourth districts of the Seaport along Avtomobilnaya Street, the first and second districts and Petrolesport along the Ekaterinofskaya embankment are connected. The main part of the buildings is aboveground objects (bridges and flyovers).
Construction of the northern section
The construction project of the northern section provided for the construction of a three-lane highway between Scandinavian Highway and Primorsky Prospect. In 2010, the composition of construction contractors, which became the company Pilon (arrangement of the section from the ring road to Bogatyrsky) and Mostootryad 19 (segments of the route from Bogatyrsky to Primorsky and from Scandinavia to the ring road), was determined.
The main elements of the site had a ground structure, but part of the path consisted of overpasses, road junctions and bridges. On the site also built one tunnel. On August 2, 2013, the northern part of the WHSD was opened, but later residual improvement works were carried out – installation of lighting poles, automatic control systems, anti-noise screens.
Central site construction
The central plot was built last. The construction period lasted from March 2013 to December 4, 2016. As a result of the work carried out, the transport artery connected the Primorsky and Admiralteisky districts with Vasilyevsky Island. An eight-lane highway, one tunnel, one junction and three bridges were built in the central section.
Bridges have a unique design and are mounted on innovative technology. Two-tier bridge construction over the Sea Canal, consisting of more than kilometers, designed as a seven-span truss with a passage through two levels. During installation, individual blocks were assembled on the slipway by the conveyor-rear method, then installed by “sliding”, including on sloping terrain. The suspended structures weighed a total of 20 tons.
A unique cable-stayed bridge (the only bridge construction in the world using inclined pylons) was laid across the Ship’s fairway, which is located in the Neva Bay. Externally, the design resembles Petersburg swing bridges, which harmoniously corresponds to the style of the northern capital.
Under the Smolenka River, an open tunnel was laid, the lower line of which lay at a depth of 13 m.
From these structures, bridges, an overpass and a traffic intersection at the intersection with the Makarov Embankment also entered the general architectural ensemble.
Through the Petrovsky fairway a cable-stayed bridge is laid, the pylons that are installed in the center of the dividing strip, and the cables intertwine and diverge in different planes.
Today, the WHSD effectively performs its functions and adorns the infrastructure of St. Petersburg. “AmerigoVespucci”, “Kruzenshtern”, “Sedov”, etc.